Neuroscience and Neurorights

Since Isaac Asimov published a collection of stories entitled Yo Robot in 1950, clearly ascribed to the science fiction genre, to the present day, when the ethical and legal problems of intelligent robots are the subject of discussion and debate by the Council of the European Union, it has not been that long. Technological advances, at any time, bring advantages, introducing improvements in the quality of life of people, but they can also generate risks, due to their possible impact on the known social order, risks that must be known, debated, and reduced or avoided. as far as possible. Regarding this, what about neurosciences and neurorights?

We have to address the importance of the privacy of citizens, in relation to neruscience and neurorights, to reconcile both worlds

One of the characteristics of this new technological Revolution is the enormous speed with which the changes are produced, which are not limited to a sectorial scope, but have economic, social, and cultural repercussions of a general nature. Faced with those who are always in favor of technology and accept it with uncritical fascination, or those who look at everything with suspicion, even fear, it is necessary to deepen the social, ethical and legal debate on the changes that digital transformation entails. and artificial intelligence.
The Council of the European Union presented in February 2019 the importance of guaranteeing full respect for the rights of citizens through the application of ethical guidelines for the development and use of artificial intelligence.

Neuroscience and Neurorights How to reconcile?

Thus it is worth mentioning as a concept Neuroscience as a field of science that studies the nervous system and all its aspects; such as its structure, function, ontogenetic and phylogenetic development, biochemistry, pharmacology and pathology; and how its different elements interact, giving rise to the biological bases of cognition and behavior.
Neuroscience in the last decade has brought many important advances that may begin to affect the way our brains are used and shared, and that’s what we’re talking about when we talk about neurorights. Currently there are imaging techniques that allow very crudely to have a line of thoughts of a subject. That suggests that one could in principle look at the activity of the brain and predict more or less partially what things the person is thinking.
At the current rate of investigation, a person could be exposed to all of their thoughts and mental privacy being exposed to scrutiny by someone. There is a threat to mental privacy there, in terms of someone being able to know what I want and what I think, and it is not up to me whether the person knows.

How to optimize technology for the good of consumers?

Another issue that comes up when we talk about neurorights has to do with the ability that neuroscience has today to intervene in the brain. In other words, I can improve the brain, and therefore I can make brains that are more capable than others, and that can generate inequality in the population, with empowered human beings, which creates a whole ethical problem. That is also part of this discussion.
The brain-machine interface, the fact that we can connect to a robot or a machine, is another point that enters into this debate. But if the machine is wrong, whose fault is it? The computer? The programmer? My brain? There are already patients in whom interventions are performed on the brain in terms of the brain-machine interface. So this is not something that is going to happen, but something that is already happening, in a rather primitive way, but it is starting to happen. There are wheelchairs that are being controlled by the head, and patients suffering from Parkinson’s that improve through direct stimulation of the spinal cord, which also computation and brain.

Technological advances, well used, are a great opportunity for development

In 2017 Rafael Yuste, director of the Center for Neurotechnology at Columbia University and who leads the BRAIN Project (Brain Research Through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies), an American initiative that since 2013 seeks to understand the functioning of our brain’s synaptic networks, signed with 25 other leading scientists an article in Nature Magazine entitled “Four ethical priorities for neurotechnologies and Artificial Intelligence”.
Yuste, who has been one of the promoters in this matter, then became the spokesperson for a proposal that seeks to define neural data –based on the brain activity of each individual–, in order to be able to give them legal protection and incorporate them into the bill of human rights five inalienable neurorights: mental privacy, personal identity, free will, equal access and non-discrimination in access to neurotechnologies.

Vision in Chile, regarding neuroscience and Neurorights

In Chile, the emergence of this topic had an immediate echo in the scientific community, and through the Senate’s Future Challenges Commission, an interdisciplinary group of scientists is developing the proposal for our country to lead the first worldwide protection pilot Ethics and legal of neurodata. This, in order to set an example and demonstrate that it is possible to move forward to regulate its relationship with artificial intelligence, the ethical, biological impact, its relationship with the maintenance of the dignity of the person, and the challenges that arise given the implications of Know these signs.
Today around the world there are Artificial Intelligence policies, and in those policies guidelines are established to protect the data, but not to protect the mental right to have one’s brain read or not. This much more limited proposal seeks for Chile to be a pioneer in identifying the rights of people in relation to new technologies and the brain.

Legislating on issues of neuroscience and neurorights is necessary!

The neuroscientific community here is small, therefore it has the opportunity to discuss these things more efficiently than a community where there are thousands of scientists, with thousands of different perspectives. And considering that Chile is a fairly small country in terms of legislation, it can promote such a thing faster than other countries, and therefore has the opportunity to become a pioneer.
* Director of the Department of Neuroscience and researcher at the Millennium Institute of Biomedical Neuroscience (BNI), of the Faculty of Medicine of the U. de Chile

Chile could be the first country to protect neurorights by law, since in April 2021 the initiative was approved in the Senate, however it still must be approved in the Lower House for its full dispatch. Unanimously, the Senate Chamber approved the constitutional reform project that modifies article 19, number 1, of the Fundamental Charter “to protect mental integrity and indemnity in relation to the advancement of neurotechnologies.”

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In this way, Chile is only one step away from becoming the first country in the world to include neuro-rights in its Constitution.
The initiative (together with the one for the protection of neurorights and mental integrity) born in the Challenges of the Future commission and chaired by Senator Guido Girardi, is being closely watched by the international community, especially by Spain, France, the United States and United Nations. After its approval in the Senate Chamber, Girardi stated that “this project is going to be a marker worldwide and Chile is going to be the flagship, the first pilot that is going to regulate neurorights so that these technologies are for the good of humans “.
The senator also specified that “President Piñera is going to take this project to Prosur, he has already discussed it with several Latin American leaders, as well as with the president of France (Emmanuel Macron) and other European leaders. This project unites Chile, it is the example that we can have common visions and work together on the great challenges facing the country”.

Neuroscience and neurorights, much to learn!

The constitutional reform project that modifies article 19, number 1, of the Fundamental Charter “to protect mental integrity and indemnity in relation to the advancement of neurotechnologies”, indicates that “scientific and technological development will be at the service of people and will be carried out with respect to life and physical and mental activity.The law will regulate the requirements and conditions for its use in people, and must tend especially to safeguard brain activity, as well as the information coming from it “.
In this way, it can be less than the reality mentioned in many articles from the famous Singularity University about the inevitable fusion of people to technology through AI, Cloud, Virtuality among others, it is already a concrete fact and then the ethical dilemma arises. , to ask ourselves how far is the limit of humanity, what defines us as such and from where we begin to be cyborgs. The theme of several films comes drastically into our lives, the bicentennial man in full is no longer science fiction.

AFS (Sources: U.Barcelona Bioethics Magazine, LaTercera Press)

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Neuroscience and Neurorights


Importance of Social Networks

In a globalized world thanks to technological evolution, today the possibility of making exchanges online is on an unimaginable scale, the market is not only your immediate environment, it is the whole world, as well as you can buy what you want in other countries , your product or service, can be offered in the same way, accessing new markets, cultures and having a greater reach, hence the importance of social networks.
This total connectivity has not only changed the way of buying, but much more importantly, the way of relating. Social networks today are networks of people connected 7 x 24, searching, obtaining information in a collaborative way and seeking to generate communities of mutual support. The importance of social networks goes beyond what we can visualize.

What are social networks?

Social Networks are structures formed on the Internet by people or organizations that connect based on common interests or values. Through them, relationships between individuals or companies are created quickly, without hierarchy or physical limits.

Social networks, in the virtual world, are sites and applications that operate at various levels, but always allowing the exchange of information between people and/or companies.
When we talk about social networks, what comes to mind in the first place are sites like Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn or applications like Snapchat and Instagram, typical of today, however there are a large number of social networks. You may think that social networks are all the same, but they are not. In fact, they are usually divided into different types, according to the purpose of the users when creating a profile.

Positive aspects:

The use of social networks has been absorbed by people around the world and today it is already part of the routine. This made these spaces a place where brands and companies also wanted to be to interact with their prospects and customers, bringing very positive possibilities, such as:

  • Social networks are a kind of showcase for your company; in them you can show the vision of the business.
  • It is possible to have a much more personalized and direct relationship with each client or potential client, since you can get in touch with each one, either to solve problems or to discover new needs.
  • When publishing on social networks, it is possible to segment your posts according to the characteristics of the audience, directing your efforts towards those ranges of the public that have more affinity with your solution.
  • Being able to know more about each of your clients: people share their tastes, desires and other information that can be valuable for companies when it comes to getting closer to their target audience. Keep an eye on what’s relevant to your audience to better connect with them.
  • Possibility of selling through these channels: in the same way that it is possible to interact with the public through social networks, it is also possible to use them to sell your products or services, mainly if you approach that audience that already has a relationship with you.

If you are not on social networks, your business does not exist

  • Possibility of diffusion for companies with a low budget: unlike traditional media, advertising on social networks has a lower cost, in addition to the advantage that it is much easier to measure the results;
  • Information in real time: social networks allow the communication of urgent messages from the brand in an official channel. This is very important in the case of managing a crisis, for example, in which it is necessary for the brand to position itself quickly, thus preventing it from taking on larger proportions.

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Technological Responsibility

Technological Social Responsibility of Companies.

Every day the need for companies to start investing in a more conscious and standardized way in aspects of information security and cybersecurity increases. But we have not touched on a point that may be of greater importance in the face of the companies’ clients and internal collaborators. What value does it have for you that companies consider all the necessary options in order to protect the information that you have provided and to be able to access it with confidence to their platforms? Here comes the importance of Technological Responsibility.

The reality indicates that users make decisions to share their personal information, taking into account the trust that a website gives them, it does so, from a simple perception that is directly influenced by colors or the information provided, but not by referring parameters. to the security of the data provided to them. But, what would happen if, beyond the functions of the marketing and sales areas, organizations were more aware of their corporate social work? Here a window opens so that organizations can generate a competitive advantage with their peers and not precisely thinking of a sanction or fine, on the contrary, as has happened with paradigm shifts in other business areas, the security of the Information and cybersecurity must be taken from a global perspective.

How many companies do you know that generate plans

training for your clients?

Well, the other value of cybersecurity lies in the fact that more capable companies and organizations directly affect the amount and level of risks they will have to face. Well surely today the answer may be closer to spending than investment. Well surely today the answer may be closer to spending than investment. But at the beginning of the 1990s, organizations believed that concern for the environment (and the active contribution to its improvement) was also concern. Perhaps, today -in consideration of the advancement of technologies- it is time to deliver more, to educate more and to generate a collaborative ecosystem that converges in an organization that is more responsible towards its clients and sporadic users.

Today is the right time for organizations to start integrating digital (or technological) social responsibility. It will be a differentiating value for those who allow and improve their policies, who generate mitigation plans and develop plans together with the community and their clients. Surely it will be thought that this will only imply expenses, but digital organizations must be responsible in terms of the information they request from their clients, but to the same extent as that which could be used without the users having a real notion of its use.

Don't you think that more worry will cause

potential clients- see your organization with better eyes?

Undoubtedly, the generation of value can also include social responsibility. From an objective point of view, there are countless needs that are not yet covered. To name a few; the digital divide that exists in the elderly, internet access in vast areas of our country, little or no digital education and why talk about education on the responsible use of digital and technological resources, including cybersecurity.

Corporate Technological Responsibility is Social Responsibility!

The invitation is for organizations to see the potential of generating transversal projects, to see the issue of information security and cybersecurity as something much broader and more important than a simple increase in the infrastructure budget. Obviously, we must start somewhere in our organization, but there is another value that will have a direct reflection on the perception that clients and collaborators have of the organization. If you have two companies that sell the same thing, that use the same technology, we could point out – without fear of being wrong – that you will choose the one that provides greater added value, in this case concern for the digital environment can be an important point considering that digitization has advanced in the last year what was projected for the next five. Task for each one of you, to see how to adapt your plans and projects so that they allow the integral development of your organizations and your clients.

As Carissa Véliz points out “Privacy is power”

“Privacy is collective, like the environment

If you don't take care of your data, others suffer the consequences

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Take care of your privacy on the Internet

In digital marketing there is a constant desire to understand in detail the behavior of users on the web, seeking to measure the origin of the navigation, the navigation route, how long users stay on the web, whether or not they created an account, the searched topics etc. On the other hand, every day we use social networks to share our personal lives. In them, we have photos and videos of our day to day, our personal information, which if it gets into the wrong hands, could expose our privacy and relevant information.

All the information that we unconsciously provide through our internet browsing and publications on our networks is constantly being measured by marketing, which seeks to measure all navigation traceability and with this information carry out campaigns focused on said behavior. with the aim of ensuring that tastes, positions and ideas are in accordance with what they want to sell, it is for this reason that our information becomes relevant. Take care of your privacy on the Internet!

Take care of your privacy on the Internet, do not expose your data

The documentary “The Social Dilemma” shows the B side of companies that, by measuring the use of interactions, can focus advertising and manage tastes, political positions, ideas, etc. Nothing is accidental, everything you see on the Internet is based on your previous searches and browsing.

Some recommendations to take care of your privacy:

  • Read the terms and conditions of the cookies and networks you wish to access
  • Review the privacy settings of your profile on social networks, protecting your personal data.
  • Evaluate well the details about your personal life that you share and if it is worth doing.

They are simple actions that will save you a hard time and prevent you from suffering negative consequences.

Do not expose your life, take care of your privacy on the Internet

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You can watch the documentary on Netflix

"The Dilemma of Social Networks
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Innovation Source of Expansion and Growth

The importance of generating innovation learning for SMEs

One of the lessons that we can draw from the rich history of the mining industry in Chile is to understand why the excellent opportunity to develop and export mining technology has not been taken advantage of, which is obviously much more profitable than exporting the mineral. The reason is and continues to be the lack of a Culture of Innovation as a source of expansion and growth. It continues to bet that copper, as we sell it, will continue to be in demand. Everything indicates that it will be so, copper will have a strong demand, at least for a while, due to the implementation in the present decade of new industries (eg, electric cars, robotics, batteries) and the reactivation and expansion of China, a matter that it’s already happening.

Everything indicates that it will be so, copper will have a strong demand, at least for a while, due to the implementation in the present decade of new industries (eg, electric cars, robotics, batteries) and the reactivation and expansion of China, a matter that it’s already happening. The knowledge accumulated about that extraordinary fertilizer would have allowed us to develop a substitute as a country and we could have maintained and strengthened that industry that was so important for Chile.

"Innovation must be considered in the planning of SMEs, as a source of expansion and growth"

If you have been associated with an SME for a long enough time, whether as an owner, executive or worker, it is very likely that you have eternally postponed ideas for new products or solutions to resigned problems, which have occurred to you during said experience. . We know that in the majority of Chilean and Latin American SMEs this is the case, once again, due to the lack of a Culture of Innovation, thus losing new business opportunities in the form of new products, new technologies or solutions, which can be manufacture, export or license.

At Fénix we know about this and we can help you create a Culture of Innovation

Innovation will allow you to:

– Constantly detect new business opportunities
– Develop marketable innovative solutions to industry problems
– Detect your creative staff and make the most of it
– Protect and patent your creations
– Apply for public and private funds to develop innovation
– Reduce taxes through the R & D law for companies
– Quickly evaluate new projects using Artificial Intelligence
– Export taking advantage of ProChile offices around the world
– Associate with Universities for the development of more sophisticated innovation, at subsidized prices.
– Constantly participate in open innovation challenges and contests for large industries.
– Create your department, division or innovation management or subcontract it.
– Access to personnel specialized in solving problems and developing new patentable products for their field or related to it.

Innovation Source of Expansion and Growth,

It is the opportunity to generate new business and project itself over time

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